The progression of the disease is often painless. By the time the disease is first diagnosed, some teeth may already have un-repairable defects. Remember, the first sign of Periodontal/ Gum disease is bleeding gums.
In order to understand gum disease, you must first understand the way the teeth and supporting structures are built. The part of the tooth you can see in your mouth is called the crown of the tooth. It is held in the mouth by the root which is embedded in your jaw bone. It is attached to the bone by way of a thin “stocking” called the periodontal ligament . The bone is, of course covered by the gums which are called the gingiva . The gingiva attach to the teeth slightly below the highest level they reach on the tooth.
The topmost part of the gingiva is called the gingival crest, and the inside of the little pocket between the gingival crest and the bottom of the pocket is called the gingival sulcus . All the bony and soft tissue that supports the tooth is called the periodontium and when this organ becomes sick, we say the patient has Periodontal disease.